SC 1 - HISTORICAL RESEARCH PRACTICE WITH INDIGENOUS PEOPLE BASED ON THEIR ORALITIES AND THE PRESENT TIME: CHALLENGES AND POSSIBILITIES 

Tamires Batista Andrade Veloso de Brito, UFCG, Brazil 

Based on oral and written memories and also bibliographic sources, we seek to discuss how the mobilizations of the Tupinambá de Olivença in southern Bahia occurred for their permanence in the territory they occupy and their consequences: produced identity representations and collective actions of leaders and chiefs, with highlight for the period between 1920-30, in which an icon in the history of the Tupinambá was active, the “caboclo” Marcellino José Alves. Thus, we consider some representations of the past in the present lived by the Tupinambá de Olivença, supported by memories and orality expressed in the views on how the Encantados, the main sacred entities in Tupinambá cosmology, signaled the moment of awakening the “sleeping identity”. Orality conveys marks of life and is rich as a historical document. In this minicourse, we will see how its use resulted from the need to broaden the notion of document (FEBVRE, 1949). However, there are some challenges in understanding this methodology for writing history (as an art as well as a science) and its possibilities, assuming rigorously applied norms. From orality we learn about events as the narrator experienced and interpreted them. 

  

SC 2 - INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND THE INDIGENOUS LEGISLATION OF THE COLONIAL PERIOD: PROCESSES OF RESISTANCE AND AGENCY BETWEEN THE 16th AND 18th CENTURY   

Lana C. Gomes de Araújo, UFPE, Brazil 

More than confusing or imprecise, the legislation created by the colonizers to deal with issues related to indigenous people in Portuguese America was experienced in different ways by ethnic groups. It can also be understood from the interests of the subjects who were part of the spaces of power in the captaincies. Despite the systematization of laws containing guidelines that are allowed or not, especially with regard to the causes of indigenous slavery, in the scenario of local governments and villages, they took other directions. Even knowing the laws, the religious, local administrators, merchants, traders, landowners, etc. they acted guided by their own interests or by the institutions or groups they represented, in an attempt to maintain power. Point of the agenda of Portuguese politics and legislation, administrative instances were created, such as the Court of the Junta das Missões (1681) and laws were promulgated such as the Regiment of the Missions (1686), the Law of Liberty of the Indians (1755) and the Directory of Indians (1757), in order to establish the compilation of laws and convert the natives to both the Catholic faith and the status of subjects of the king. However, the study of historical sources has allowed us to verify the protagonism of indigenous men and women in the face of the dictates of the Crown, the Church and local authorities. In this sense, this table aims to discuss the processes of agency and resistance of the original people to the legislation of the time, in order to understand the specificities of each people and each region.         

  

SC 3 - THE STORY TOLD ON THIS SIDE: THE STRATEGIES OF THE XOKÓ DE SERGIPE FOR THE POSSESSION OF THE INDIGENOUS LAND ILHA/CAIÇARA: 1978 – 2003. 

Ivanilson Martins dos Santos – Xokó, UFAL, Brazil 

The purpose of this short course is to promote some reflections on the Xokó's fight strategies for the possession of the Ilha/Caiçara Indigenous Land, which is located in the municipality of Porto da Folha, in the current state of Sergipe. More recent research on the Xokó, report a territorial context and nomenclatures ranging from southern Ceará to the state of Sergipe between the 17th and 18th centuries. We can find in the historical documents: Shocó, Chocó, Chocoz, Ciocó or Ceocose. Today written as Xokó of the Island of São Pedro/Caiçara. The objective is to develop a narrative from the indigenous point of view, which already in the title exposes a “story told from this side”. From this perspective, it is healthy to understand the Xokó's Strategies/Narratives for the possession and struggle of their territory; visibility strategies; articulations which demarcate a period of struggle with indigenous people, since the 1970s was a period of explosion of great demands and reaffirmations of the identity and indianity of the indigenous people of the Northeast. This process is also indigenous ethnogenesis: the Xokó reappear there. We will make an exhibition of speeches and some notes reported in newspapers and magazines of the time to understand these Xokó strategies. 

  

SC 4 - INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND INQUISITION IN COLONIAL BRAZIL 

Luana Souto Cavalcanti, UFCG 

The Holy Office or Inquisition was an ecclesiastical court established in the Middle Ages during the 13th and 14th centuries, which aimed to persecute, judge and punish those who deviated from the religious precepts of the Catholic Church. Later we had the apogee of the modern Inquisition in Spain and Portugal in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, and it was from this modern Inquisition that Brazil felt the tentacles of the inquisitorial machine. In Brazil there was no actual installation of an Inquisitorial Court as it happened in Lima (1570), Mexico (1571) and Cartagena (1610) , but this did not mean that there was no Inquisition in these lands, Brazil was throughout the entire period. colonial period subordinated to the Lisbon Court, which, in turn, sent licensees/representatives and contained a whole network of employees of the Holy Office to act in pursuit of those who deviated from Catholic precepts, including indigenous people who were inserted in the Christian universe who also they were liable to be punished by the Inquisition due to their possible transgressions, be they witchcraft, blasphemy, bigamy, sodomy, superstitions, in short, any crime/sin that offended the religious precepts of the Catholic Church. In this way, our short course aims to seek a better understanding of how the Inquisition acted in relation to indigenous people during the colonial period in Brazil. 

  

SC 5 - SCHOOL AS A SPACE OF RESISTANCE AND SOCIAL PROTAGONISM: THE CHALLENGES IN IMPLEMENTING LAW 11.645/2008 

Wania Alexandrino, UFOPA 

Think about the school institution as a space of problematization and contribution to a social protagonism. The school becomes a mechanism for promoting debates, reflections and knowledge construction, which acts in the struggle for equality of rights among different social groups. Thus, we have the school as a cultural and plural space where it is necessary to discuss respect for human diversity. In this sense, the implementation of Law 11645/08, which makes the Teaching of Indigenous History and Culture mandatory in the school curriculum, aims to meet a socio-historical demand of indigenous ethnic groups, which were neglected throughout the process of Brazilian educational training. However, despite a decade of mandatory indigenous themes in school content, many teachers find it difficult to work with the aforementioned theme. And, this short course understands the need to address the teaching methodologies that deal with indigenous history and culture, at the same time, in which we intend to debate the importance of this law as a discussion instrument for the strengthening and recognition of the struggles of indigenous movements and the strengthening of an education for otherness. 

  

SC 6 - INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES AND LINGUISTIC SOCIAL HISTORY OF BRAZIL  

Pedro Daniel dos Santos Souza (UNEB) 

This mini-course aims to discuss, within the scope of investigations into the linguistic social history of Brazil, the linguistic contacts and the consequences of the encounter between Brazilian indigenous languages, namely unwritten, and Portuguese – a written culture language –, highlighting the assemblages and the negotiation and resistance strategies of the indigenous people against the monolingual project of the colonizer. In this direction, we will address the emergence, diffusion and use of general indigenous languages, proposing a historiographical review of the way the theme has been presented, in addition to reflecting on glotocides, the generally multilingual character of Portuguese America, which, on account of diverse factors, it becomes locally multilingual, the linguistic policies that contributed to the linguistic reconfigurations of the different spaces, the processes of linguistic revitalization and resumption, also responsible for the redefinition of the mosaic of languages ​​spoken in Brazil. Traversing the 521 years of “loss and gains”, we will also revisit the propositions of Aryon Rodrigues (1966) who, when defining the “Tasks of Linguistics in Brazil” and, specifically, of the so-called “Pure Linguistics”, considered that we should put first place the investigation of indigenous languages, reflecting, in the meantime, on the consequences of this position and the challenges that still need to be faced. 

  

SC 7 - USE OF GOOGLE EARTH TOOLS AND WEB APPLICATION FOR GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS (GIS) AND PROJECTS WITH INDIGENOUS PEOPLE 

Geise de Góes Canalez (NETNO/NESAM/UFAM) 

The availability of spatial information has undergone significant changes with the development of geographic intelligence systems for the internet. Linked to this, it is increasingly important that the tools adopted are easy to access, use 'light' platforms for access on smartphones, tablets and computers with simple configuration, and that they have an intuitive mechanism for use. These facilities, supported by the technology offered by map servers, in which the databases moved from a restricted public specialized in Geoprocessing techniques to all those who have access to the internet, bring a new demand for users with basic skills to manipulate these tools. Such tools become necessary for the development of research focused on socio-environmental and historical issues of Indigenous People. 

  

SC 8 - ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY AND INDIGENOUS HISTORY: THE INDIGENOUS SUBJECT IN TRADE IN PAU-BRASIL DURING THE HALF OF THE 16TH CENTURY 

Éverton Alves Aragão (Master's Student - PPGH/UFCG) 

Historiographic thinking and production constantly reinforce the conception of an indigenous less evolved than the European, treating them as mere tools in the initial context of the European presence in the “New World” and the “Pau-brasil Cycle”. The methodological experiences do not question and until recently omits, ignores or relegates generic Indians to a distant colonial past – represented as compulsive Brazilian wood cutters in French and Portuguese enterprises. The experiences lived by the indigenous people of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest constitute, therefore, a challenge for reflections on the understanding of the historical processes that result in the current sociopolitical mobilizations for the claims, achievements and guarantees of rights. It is necessary to think of Indigenous History from the perspective of Environmental History, of a Connected History, not as passive historical subjects. Recognizing indigenous sociodiversities and contributing to discussions in the historical perspective that highlight the power relations, access, use and meanings of Brazilwood by indigenous people. 

   

SC 9 - INDIGENOUS COSMOLOGIES, FOOD AND PRODUCTION CIRCULATION

Edson Tosta Matarezio Filho (NESAM/PPGICH/UEA)

This short course aims to get closer to some indigenous food systems and their conceptions of humanity. Seeking an ethnographic point of view on indigenous experiences in the production, circulation, processing, preparation and consumption of food, the course relates this entire trajectory to conceptions of the body, cosmology, mythology, social organization and kinship, commensality, indigenous production for the market and income generation, security, food sovereignty and agrobiodiversity. In this sense, I propose a reflection that starts from some cases of relations with animals, plants and territory among some indigenous groups, to the presentation of some strategies for the insertion of production into the market, especially public purchases. A fundamental question that will guide us throughout the course will be: how do populations in which the human status is shared with certain animals and plants relate to the consumption and sale of products from their fields, hunting and fishing?

 

SC 10 - REVISITING THE EDUCATIONAL/CURATIVE PRACTICES OF THE POTIGUARA PEOPLE, PARAÍBA BRAZIL 

Pedro Ka'aguassu Potiguara, UFRN, Brazil 

All the wisdom and knowledge about the educational/healing practices of our people Potiguara, Brazil were passed on by our indigenous elders, orally, in an ancestral way to our culture, and has effects as efficient as the 'sciences' called 'Western scientific', in sphere of bodily, mental and spiritual improvements and also in the strengthening of our ethnicity as an original people. In order to allow greater visibility to our knowledge and curative practices, in the middle of the Atlantic Forest biome, we aim in this mini-course to address the wealth of our knowledge and healing practices passed on from an early age by the elderly with the presence of our enchanted ones. Educational/healing practices updated in our indigenous schools through dynamic and participatory pedagogical processes in which children come into contact with the nature of their surroundings and come to understand the importance, for example, of plants as living organisms that are used in different ways for our cures of body and soul.

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